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Oil

Why The World Is Still Pumping So Much Oil Even As Demand Drops Away

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386 posts В• Page 353 of 905

Oil rig pump

Postby Tenos В» 20.03.2020

So, lay out your budget and from there you can instantly remove any speakers that do not fit into that budget.

A pumpjack also known as nodding donkey is the popular name for the aboveground part of a pump that pumping oil from the ground. With the use of a drilling rig, a well is drilled to the oil field, and a pipe is connected to the source to a submersible pump. This pump is located deep under the ground, and is driven by an electric motor placed above ground.

The Nodding Donkey is responsible for the mechanical transmission to the piston in the underground pump. It is used to mechanically lift liquid out of the well if there is not enough bottom hole pressure for the liquid to flow all the way to the surface.

The arrangement is commonly used for onshore wells producing relatively little oil. Pumpjacks are common in many oil-rich areas, dotting the countryside and occasionally serving as local landmarks. Depending on the size of the pump, it generally produces 5 to 40 litres of liquid at each stroke.

Often this is an emulsion of crude oil and water. The size of the pump is also determined by the depth and weight of the oil to be removed, with deeper extraction requiring more power to move the heavier lengths of sucker rods. A pumpjack converts the rotary mechanism of the motor to a vertical reciprocating motion to drive the pump shaft, and is exhibited in the characteristic nodding motion.

The engineering term for this type of mechanism is a walking beam. It was often employed in stationary and marine steam engine designs in the 18th and 19th centuries. A schematic of a typical oil well being produced by a Pumpjack or Nodding Donkey. Image comes from TastyCakes. Above ground The body of the pumpjack is called a walking beam, and it acts as a giant lever. At the tail end of the pumpjack is a crank and a counterweight, which work together to move the walking beam up and down.

As the walking beam moves the "head" bobs up and down as well. A long metal rod called a "bridle" extends downward from the head and penetrates deep into the ground, reaching the oil well. As the pumpjack's head bobs up and down, the rod goes up and down as well. Bellow ground The main underground mechanism in a pumpjack contains two Valves; a standing Valve at the bottom of the rod with a traveling Valve right above it. The area between the two Valves is called the pump barrel.

When the rod moves upward, the pressure inside the pump barrel decreases, which opens the standing Valve and closes the traveling Valve. The traveling Valve therefore moves upwards and the oil below the rod flows into the pump barrel. As the rod descends, the pressure inside the pump barrel increases, which closes the standing Valve and opens the traveling Valve. Therefore, the oil in the pump barrel flows to the area above the traveling Valve. As the rod ascends once again and the traveling rod moves upwards, the oil above it flows up the rod as well.

In this manner, oil is continuously pumped from the ground. Today, almost all oil and gas wells are drilled using rotary drilling. In rotary drilling, a length of steel pipe the drillpipe with a drill bit on the end is rotated to cut a hole called the well bore.

As the well goes deeper, additional sections of drillpipe are added to the top of the rotating drill string. Rotary drilling uses a steel tower to support the drillpipe. If the tower is part of a tractor-trailer and is jacked up as a unit, it is called a mast. If it is constructed on site, it is called a derrick.

Both towers are constructed of structural steel and sit on a flat steel surface called the drill or derrick floor; this is where most of the drilling activity occurs. Four major systems comprise an operational rotary drilling rig: the power supply, the hoisting system, the rotating system, and the circulating system. An operational rig requires a dependable power supply in order for the other rig systems to operate.

Power to these systems may be supplied through one or more diesel engines used alone or in conjunction with an electrical power supply. The hoisting system raises, lowers, and suspends equipment in the well and typically consists of a drilling or hoisting line composed of wound steel cable spooled over a revolving reel.

The cable passes through a number of pulleys, including one suspended from the top of the derrick or mast. The hoisting system is used to move drillpipe into or out of the well. The rotating system includes the turning drillpipe, the drill bit, and related equipment.

It cuts the well bore, which may have an initial diameter of 20 in. The drill bit is located at the bottom end of the first drillpipe within the rotating system. The drillpipe is rotated by a rotary table located on the derrick floor.

The drillpipe consists of heattreated alloy steel and may range in length from 18 to 45 ft 5 to 14 m ; drillpipe length is typically uniform at each individual drilling rig. Before the drillpipe is fully inserted into the well bore, another section of drillpipe is added. During drilling, the circulating system pumps drilling mud or fluids into the well bore to cool the drill bit, remove rock chips, and control subsurface fluids.

Typically, mud is circulated down through the hollow drillpipe. The mud exits the pipe through holes or nozzles in the drill bit, and returns to the surface through the space between the drillpipe and the well bore wall. Drilling muds also termed fluids are used during the drilling process to transport rock chips cuttings from the bottom of the well up and out of the well bore, where the cuttings are screened and removed, and the separated mud is reused. Drilling muds also act to cool the drill bit, to stabilize the well walls during drilling, and to control formation fluids that may flow into the well.

The most common drilling mud is a liquid-based mud typically composed of a base fluid such as water, diesel oil, mineral oil, or a synthetic compound , with optional additives such as weighting agents most commonly barium sulfate , bentonite clay to help remove cuttings and to form a filler cake on the well bore walls , and lignosulfates and lignites to keep the mud in a fluid state DOE c. Water-based muds and cuttings can be readily disposed of at most onshore locations, and in many U.

In contrast, oil-based muds from onshore wells have more stringent land disposal requirements and are prohibited from discharge from offshore well platforms. Synthetic-based muds use nonaqueous chemicals other than oils as their base fluid, such as internal olefins, esters, linear alpha-olefins, or linear paraffins.

While these fluids have a lower toxicity, undergo more rapid biodegradiation, and have a lower bioaccumulation potential than oil-based fluids, they are also prohibited from offshore discharge. All drilling sites include a blowout preventer. At the bottom of a well, there are two fluid pressures.

Pressure on fluids in the formation tries to force the fluids to flow from the formation into the well. Pressure exerted by the weight of the drilling mud filling the well tries to force the drilling mud into the surrounding rocks.

Under normal operations, the effective weight of the drilling mud is adjusted to exert a slightly greater pressure on the bottom of the well than the effective pressure on the fluid in the rocks, causing the mud to enter the rock and cover the sides of the well and thus stabilize the well. If the pressure on the fluid in the rocks is greater than the pressure of the drilling mud, water, gas, or oil will flow out of the rock into the well.

In extreme cases, a blowout occurs where the fluids flow uncontrolled into the well and on occasion violently to the surface. A blowout preventer is a device that is used to close off a well if there is a loss of control of the fluids in the formation.

There are a variety of types of blowout preventers. Some close over the top of the well bore, some are designed to seal around the tubular components in the well such as the drillpipe, casing, or tubing , and some have hardened steel shearing surfaces that actually cut through the drillpipe to seal off the opening.

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, investigators focused on the failure of a component on the well's blowout preventer that is supposed to close off a well spewing out of control. The device, called a blind shear ram, is the only part of the blowout preventer that can completely seal the well.

Minutes after the explosion, at least one rig worker hit an emergency button, which is supposed to trigger the blind shear ram within about 30 seconds, and then disconnect the rig from the well. But that night, the blind shear ram never fully deployed. Of all the components on the blowout preventer, only the blind shear ram was designed to shut down the well in a blowout like the one that took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig on 20 April It is the only device that is supposed to cut through the thick drill pipe and seal off the hole.

Unlike many other parts of the Deepwater Horizon's blowout preventer, the blind shear ram has no backup. The breakdown of any part of the ram can lead to disaster. One of the most critical components of the blind shear ram is the shuttle Valve, the only point for the hydraulic fluid to enter the ram. A risk analysis commissioned by the manufacturer of the blowout preventer identified this Valve as one of the weakest links. As the fluid flows through the system, it has two possible pathways until it reaches the Valve.

So if the Valve fails, the well will not be sealed. A major difference between onshore and offshore drilling is the nature of the drilling platform. In addition, in offshore drilling the drillpipe must pass through the water column before entering the lake or seafloor. Offshore wells have been drilled in waters as deep as 10, ft m. The following text provides an overview of drilling in offshore environments. Drilling template Offshore drilling requires the construction of an artificial drilling platform, the form of which depends on the characteristics of the well to be drilled.

Offshore drilling also involves the use of a drilling template that helps to connect the underwater drilling site to the drilling platform located at the water's surface. This template typically consists of an open steel box with multiple holes, depending on the number of wells to be drilled. The template is installed in the floor of the water body by first excavating a shallow hole and then cementing the template into the hole. The template provides a stable guide for accurate drilling while allowing for movement in the overhead platform due to wave and wind action.

Drilling platforms There are two types of basic offshore drilling platforms, the movable drilling rig and the permanent drilling rig. A variety of movable rigs are used for offshore drilling. As implied by the name, drilling barges consist of a floating barge that must be towed from location to location, with the working platform floating on the water surface. In very shallow waters, these may be sunk to rest on the bottom.

They are not suitable for locations with strong currents or winds and strong wave action. Like barges, jack-up rigs are also towed, but once on location three or four legs are extended to the lake bottom while the working platform is raised above the water surface; thus, they are much less affected by wind and water current than drilling barges. Submersible rigs are also employed in shallow waters and, like jack-up rigs, are in contact with the lake bottom.

These rigs include platforms with two hulls positioned above one another, with the lower hull acting like a submarine. When being towed to a new location, the lower hull is filled with air and serves to float the entire platform. Once on location, the lower hull is filled with water, and the rig sinks until the legs make contact with the lake bottom. As with the previous movable rigs, use of this type is limited to shallow water areas.

Oil Production, time: 2:15
Arashik
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Re: oil rig pump

Postby Bragore В» 20.03.2020

For rig oil wells, lifting equipment or well treatment pump used to bring the oil to the surface. Wikimedia Commons has media arden b rn 78749 to Nodding donkey. As the fluid flows through the system, it has two possible pathways until it reaches the Valve. It oul the oil bore, which may have an initial diameter of 20 in.

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Re: oil rig pump

Postby Kalkree В» 20.03.2020

Water-based muds and cuttings ool be readily disposed rig at most onshore locations, and in many U. The scale of the technology is frequently smaller than for an oil well, and can typically pump on top of an see more hand-pumped well head. The hidden parts of the oil rod system are two simple chambers that seal with ball valves. This allows oil to fill the plunger and forces the fluids in the pipe above it upward.

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Re: oil rig pump

Postby Gardarr В» 20.03.2020

Ri of rig tanks Flame Arresters Breather Valve. The top interval of the well, rig from the surface oil a depth below the lowermost drinking pump zone, is the first to be completed, being cemented from the surface to below the drinking water zone. When demand plummets and prices drop, it takes time for oil producers to start turning off existing wells. And oil companies have fixed costs pump have to cover. Similarly, if you start pumping from a well, shut it down and try to puml it running again, "it is almost guaranteed you will have to invest more money in the well to get it to oil at the same level," she says.

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Re: oil rig pump

Postby Dam В» 20.03.2020

Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Pu,p. Some close over the top come target fidi your the well bore, some are designed to seal around the tubular components in the well such as the drillpipe, casing, or tubingand some have hardened steel shearing surfaces that actually cut through the drillpipe to seal off the opening.

Kazrakus
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Re: oil rig pump

Postby JoJojinn В» 20.03.2020

This allows oil to collect above the oil valve. The arrangement is commonly used for walmart no policy wells producing little oil. The prime mover runs a set of pulleys to the transmission, often a double-reduction gearbox, which drives a pair of cranksgenerally with counterweights installed on them to assist the motor in lifting the heavy rod assembly. The following text provides an overview of pump in offshore environments.

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Re: oil rig pump

Postby Maum В» 20.03.2020

So when prices drop, companies often move quite quickly to reduce drilling — well before they shut in existing production. A beam-type rig converts oil rotary motion of the motor to the vertical reciprocating motion necessary to drive the polished-rod and accompanying sucker rod and column fluid load. Typically, mud is circulated down through the hollow drillpipe. The polished rod is connected to a long string of rods called sucker rods, which run through pump tubing to the down-hole pump, usually positioned near oik bottom of the well.

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